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Many people know about the Met’s so-called “Black Museum” at New Scotland Yard; it is usually mentioned in whispered tones. The lucky few will preen slightly when they tell you that they have somehow managed to visit. This semi-mythical status has arisen because it is a private museum – the Crime Museum – whose purpose, from 1902, has been a training aid for detectives. But the genesis of the collection dates from the 1860s when it became compulsory for all prisoners’ belongings to be kept in safe storage. Most of these items remained uncollected, not least, of course, from criminals who had been executed. They were subsequently augmented with actual real case objects and other crime-related ephemera.

Early Police Museum illustration ILN 1883

Early Police Museum illustration ILN 1883

Hence the collection comprises thousands of items dating back to before 1829. About a third of them have been selected by curators at the Museum of London to be displayed to the public for the first time in this new exhibition: Crime Museum Uncovered. We have items which range from as far back as folk hero Jack Sheppard to as recently as the Glasgow Airport bomber and his fire-scorched laptop computer. Notorious criminals including Crippen, the Krays, the acid bath murderer and baby-farm murderer Amelia Dyer. Not only the likes of them, but totally obscure criminals whose cases are no less fascinating.

As you enter, the first several rooms set the nineteenth century scene and are deliberately arranged as the early Crime Museum may have been, using period display cabinets. We have about ten death masks of prominent murderers from before photography had become established. We also have court room pen and ink likenesses of people on trial, whether for murder, fraud or other myriad offences. They are sublimely done, by the illustrator William Hartley, for me the hero of this show. The curators clearly agree for they have rightly featured dozens of his illustrations over a number of displays. Apart from the defendents, they include judges, lawyers, courtroom staff, detectives and witnesses. Sitting just this side of caracature, they capture the all too human personalities of those in the witness stand, by turn evil, raffish, noble as the case may be.

Period display case and William Hartley illustrations.

Period display case and William Hartley illustrations.

William Hartley Courtroom illustration of Amelia Sachs and Annie Walters on trial for baby farming, 1903 © Museum of London

William Hartley Courtroom illustration of Amelia Sachs and Annie Walters on trial for baby farming, 1903 © Museum of London

Capital Punishment: Execution ropes, 19th and 20th Century © Museum of London

Capital Punishment: Execution ropes, 19th and 20th Century © Museum of London

The main hall of the exhibition is arranged with murders – infamous or interesting or both – down the right hand side while the left side and main body of the space is devoted thematically to types of crime: burglary, theft, forgery, terrorism, espionage and so on. As crimes and criminals became more sophisticated – more devious one might say – so too has the technology and method of detective work come along leaps and bounds: photography, fingerprint profiling, identikit, intelligence gathering and of course in the 20C – the Internet and CCTV. Ultimately, though, detective work – as they frequently emphasise on TV police shows – comes down to good old fashioned evidence gathering of the most mundane sort, which for me is the most interesting. So there are plenty of seemingly everyday objects – particularly in the murder displays – of cap badges, buttons, cigarette tins, etc.

Counterfeiting and Forgery: Implements used for counterfeiting seized by Metropolitan Police © Museum of London

Counterfeiting and Forgery: Implements used for counterfeiting seized by Metropolitan Police © Museum of London

Personal possessions of Ronnie Biggs and other members of the Great Train Robbery gang recovered from their hideout at Leatherslade Farm, 1963 © Museum of London / object courtesy the Metropolitan Police’s Crime Museum

Personal possessions of Ronnie Biggs and other members of the Great Train Robbery gang recovered from their hideout at Leatherslade Farm, 1963 © Museum of London / object courtesy the Metropolitan Police’s Crime Museum

The badge of the Leicestershire Regiment that helped to convict David Greenwood of murder, 1918. Greenwood was convicted of raping and murdering 16 year old girl, Nellie Trew in February 1918. This badge was found at the crime scene. He denied having met Nellie but was found guilty and sentenced to death, commuted to life imprisonment. He was released in 1933 aged 36. But was he guilty of the crime? © Museum of London / object courtesy the Metropolitan Police’s Crime Museum

The badge of the Leicestershire Regiment that helped to convict David Greenwood of murder, 1918.  © Museum of London / object courtesy the Metropolitan Police’s Crime Museum

Murder bag: a forensics kit used by detectives attending crime scenes © Museum of London

Murder bag: a forensics kit used by detectives attending crime scenes © Museum of London

Terrorism: Shrapnel from an unexploded Fenian bomb found at Paddington Station 1884 © Museum of London

Terrorism: Shrapnel from an unexploded Fenian bomb found at Paddington Station 1884 © Museum of London

This exhibition has been very thoughtfully curated, giving a fascinating insight into detective work in London over nearly two hundred years. It features, inevitably, extreme violence of both the criminal and the state without glorifying either, and being extra-careful to avoid sensationalism (there is some Ripper stuff, apparently: if so, I never saw it). It successfully exposes the all-too-human and tragic elements of crime without excusing it. This was their stated aim and they have achieved it with honour, I feel.

The Crime Museum Uncovered is as good if not better than the Cheapside Hoard show of a few years back, the Museum of London at its very best. I congratulate the curators and urge you to go and see it for yourself.

The Crime Museum Uncovered runs from today, 9 Oct, until 10 April 2016. Adult tickets from £10 and there are many associated events through the run. We understand this weekend is already fully-booked.

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policelightHere are the speed quiz questions from last Wednesday evening’s History in the Pub: Policing London. See how you go. Answers are in the comments.

  1. What did the first FA Cup Final at Wembley in 1923 become known as?
  2. Which former Prime Minister is commonly credited with founding the Metropolitan Police?
  3. Where in London is the HQ of the Thames River Police, its home since its foundation in 1798?
  4. In which West End square was Yvonne Fletcher shot in 1984?
  5. What did the novelist and magistrate Henry Fielding found in the 18C?
  6. What was the nickname of the possibly mythical Latvian leader of the Houndsditch Murders and the Siege of Sidney Street in 1910/11?
  7. Who was the policeman murdered in the Broadwater Farm riots of 6 October 1985?
  8. The National Police Memorial near Horseguards was unveiled in 2005. What secondary purpose does it serve, as well as being a memorial to police officers?
  9. What was the fictional police station in the ITV Series The Bill?
  10. What year were women police officers first introduced to the Met?
  11. Two major London memorials to national heroes are also linked to disused London police facilities. Name the Heroes.
  12. At what event are the City of London Police the reigning Olympic champions?

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bow police stationWeekend engineering works on the Eastern stretch of the District Line gave me the opportunity to mooch around Bow yesterday. Every cloud and all that. I noticed that Bow Police Station has been closed less than a month. Note the alternatives listed on the notice. A thin gruel. The crims of East London must be delighted.

This particular building was designed by John Dixon Butler (1861–1920) and completed in 1903. A collaborator of Norman Shaw, as Surveyor and Architect to the Metropolitan Police he designed over 200 public buildings. As a near-complete survivor of his work, Bow Police Station was Grade II listed in 2009.

It’s astounding  how many public buildings were constructed in the Edwardian Era. Libraries, hospitals, police stations, museums, archives, etc. A century later, many have succumbed; many more are in constant danger.

Excellent further information on this building and its architect here.

bow police station

bow police station

bow police station

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Whereas offences against property have of late increased in and near the metropolis; and the local establishments of nightly watch and nightly police have been found inadequate to the prevention and detection of crime, by reason of the frequent unfitness of the individuals employed, the insufficiency of their number, the limited sphere of their authority, and their want of connection and co-operation with each other: And whereas it is expedient to substitute a new and more efficient system of police in lieu of such establishments of nightly watch and nightly police, within the limits herein-after mentioned, and to constitute an office of police, which, acting under the immediate authority of one of his Majesty’s principal secretaries of state, shall direct and control the whole of such new system of police within those limits.

So goes the preamble of the Metropolitan Police Act of 19 June 1829, which established the organisation we know today. As every child should know, Sir Robert Peel was the moving force behind the Act. The Met was actually founded and operational a few months later on 29 September. Its first two commissioners were Sir Charles Rowan and Richard Mayne. The City of London was excluded from these arrangements, running their own force, as they do to this day.

Much is made – rightly – of the so-called Peelian principles, although there is no evidence that he himself devised them:

  1. The basic mission for which the police exist is to prevent crime and disorder.
  2. The ability of the police to perform their duties is dependent upon the public approval of police actions.
  3. Police must secure the willing co-operation of the public in voluntary observation of the law to be able to secure and maintain the respect of the public.
  4. The degree of co-operation of the public that can be secured diminishes proportionately to the necessity of the use of physical force.
  5. Police seek and preserve public favour not by catering to public opinion, but by constantly demonstrating absolute impartial service to the law.
  6. Police use physical force to the extent necessary to secure observance of the law or to restore order only when the exercise of persuasion, advice, and warning is found to be insufficient.
  7. Police, at all times, should maintain a relationship with the public that gives reality to the historic tradition that the police are the public and the public are the police; the police being only members of the public who are paid to give full-time attention to duties which are incumbent upon every citizen in the interests of community welfare and existence.
  8. Police should always direct their action strictly towards their functions, and never appear to usurp the powers of the judiciary.
  9. The test of police efficiency is the absence of crime and disorder, not the visible evidence of police action in dealing with it
It is a shame that they seem unfamiliar to today’s politicians and police commissioners.

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