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A guest post by London Historians Member Martin Thompson.

150_portrait_lee millerElizabeth (Lee) Miller was one of the most remarkable women of the 20th Century; Vogue fashion model; fashion photographer of note with her own studio; artist’s muse; an accredited war correspondent during the Second World War, covering events such as the London Blitz, the liberation of Paris, and the concentration camps at Buchenwald and Dachau; friend of luminaries such as Man Ray and Pablo Picasso; and in later life becoming a gourmet cook. She was admired as much for her free-spirit, creativity and intelligence as for her classical beauty. Known as ‘Lee’ Miller, she married the artist Sir Roland Penrose in 1947 and thereafter was also known as Lady Penrose.

Lee Miller was born on 23 April, 1907 in Poughkeepsie, New York. The name derives from a word in the local tribal Wappinger language, meaning “the reed-covered lodge by the little-water place,” referring to a spring or stream feeding into the Hudson River south of the present downtown. She was the second child of Theodore, an Engineer, Businessman and Inventor and his wife Florence, a Nurse. Always a tomboy, she grew up on a farm and was always trying to outdo her brothers, Tom and Erik. Her father, who was also an amateur photographer, was a strong influence on the young Lee and introduced all three of his children to photography at an early age often using Lee and her young friends as models.

At the age of seven she was raped by the son of a family friend. This was kept quiet, as such things often were in those days; so quiet in fact that no one knew about the event except her immediate family. It was only after her death that that this became known, her son Anthony having spoken to his Uncle Erik. It might be argued that it affected her personality as she was always restless and somewhat rebellious, finding it difficult to find love and settle down with anyone.

Aged 19 she was nearly killed when she walked in front of a truck on a Manhattan street but was saved by a passerby who managed to pull her away just in time. Her rescuer was Conde Nast, the founder of Vogue magazine. He effectively launched her modelling career on the cover of American Vogue. She was photographed by the greatest talents of the day, becoming one of the most sought after models in New York. However, unbeknown to Lee, one photograph of her was used in an advert for Kotex and work began to dry up.

Having become interested in the work behind the camera as well as in front as a model, she moved to Paris in 1929, becoming apprenticed to the surrealist painter and photographer Man Ray as well as becoming his lover and muse. It was here that she started her career as a photographer. She was an active participant in the surrealist movement, making friends with, among others, Pablo Picasso, who immortalised her in a number of his famous works; and the artist and film maker Jean Cocteau. In 1932 she returned to New York and opened a portrait and commercial photography studio with her brother Erik as her darkroom assistant. This was not to last. In 1934, almost on a whim, she married Egyptian businessman Aziz Eloui Bey who had gone to New York to buy equipment for the Egyptian Railways. They moved to Cairo. But by 1937 she had become bored with her life in Egypt and once more moved back to Paris where she divorced Aziz and met the surrealist painter Roland Penrose (later Sir Roland), who was to become her second husband in 1947 and father of her only son, Anthony.

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With Pablo Picasso.

Early in World War 2, Lee was living at 21 Downshire Hill, Hampstead, with Roland Penrose when the bombing of London began. Ignoring pleas from friends and family to return to the United States, she embarked on a new career in photojournalism as the official war photographer for Vogue, documenting the Blitz. Roland was called upon to work as a lecturer on camouflage and used a picture of the naked Lee covered with camouflage netting. He said that his lectures were very well attended after that with some participants coming back to his lectures two or three times. He was also required to do duty as an air raid warden; Lee would sometimes join him on his rounds. From Hampstead Heath the criss-crossing searchlights, bursting flak and glow of the fires at London docks would present an awesome panorama, one that she found exciting. She also recounted that one night a barrage balloon collapsed on the house. She and the operators spent the whole night getting the thing under control, rolled up, down into the garden, through the house and through the front door. Their house in Downshire Hill played host to a variety of colourful characters, including the ‘Cambridge spies’ Anthony Blunt, Guy Burgess and Donald Maclean although, of course, they were not known as such at the time.

Lee was accredited into the U.S. Army as a war correspondent for Conde Nast Publications from December 1942. She travelled to France less than a month after D-Day and teaming up with Life photojournalist David E. Scherman, recorded the battle of Saint-Malo, field hospitals in Normandy, the liberation of Paris, the battle for Alsace, and the horror of the Nazi concentration camps at Buchenwald and Dachau. Her photographs, some of the first photographic evidence of the Holocaust, were a horrifying glimpse of the atrocities committed by the Nazis in the camps. From Dachau she and Scherman went directly to Hitler’s private apartment in Munich. She had Scherman photograph her washing herself in Hitler’s bathtub, her boots still with the mud of Dachau on them on the bathmat. Immediately after the war, Lee travelled throughout Eastern Europe to see and photograph the devastating aftermath of the war. She photographed dying children in a Vienna Hospital, peasant life in post-war Hungary, and the execution of the fascist ex-Prime Minister Laszlo Bardossy of Hungary. After that, she continued to work for Vogue for a further two years, covering fashion and celebrities.

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In uniform.

In 1949 Roland and Lee bought Farley Farm House in East Sussex which became a sort of artistic Mecca for visiting artists such as Picasso, Man Ray, Henry Moore, Eileen Agar, Jean Dubuffet, Dorothea Tanning, and Max Ernst. Having witnessed so much pain and pointless destruction during the war, she fell into a long period of depression and alcohol abuse but reinvented herself as a gourmet cook in the 1960s having completed the cordon blue course in Paris, as featured in several magazines. She hosted Surrealist dinner parties and made wildly experimental dishes, serving her guests food such as green chicken or blue fish, the latter said to have been inspired by the Spanish Surrealist painter and sculptor Miró.

Lee Miller died from cancer at Farley Farm House in Chiddingly, East Sussex, in 1977, aged 70. She was cremated, and her ashes were spread through her herb garden at Farley Farm House. Farley Farm has now, through the work of Anthony Penrose, become a museum featuring the work, life and times of Lee Miller.

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Image: London Remembers.

The house at 21 Downshire Hill, Hampstead was awarded an English Heritage blue plaque in 2003. Unveiled by the playwright Sir David Hare, it reads simply: Lee Miller (1907-1977), Photographer, and Sir Roland Penrose (1900-1984), Surrealist, lived here. For historians of 20th-century photography, the plaque marks the rightful rehabilitation of a remarkable artist and character that had been all but forgotten since her death.

 

A guest post by LH Member Jane Young. 

Review: The Domestic Herbal Plants for the Home in the Seventeenth Century
by Margaret Willes


71odrpmARdLA meticulous study of the role and uses of herbs, fruit, vegetables and flowers during the seventeenth century. The extensive research covers medicine, cookery, brewing and distilling, laundry, personal hygiene and cosmetics, dyeing and weaving and even dressing a table and floristry, alongside the cultivation of these essential plants and botanicals.

Every aspect of domestic life is explored within this tour of the seventeenth century house, beautifully illustrated with exquisite plates from publications contemporary to the period. Many of these depict the numerous skills of the housewife which included the important task of growing and tending to the flora and fauna intrinsic to running the household in smaller homes or overseeing this task in large establishments. The well known Herbals from Gerard and Culpeper are featured with numerous recipes found in receipt and commonplace books. Explanations of how the grocery trade supplied prized exotic ingredients, the importance of market gardens and customs and traditions of the changing seasons interweave with accounts from botanists and diaries. The writing is captivating and engaging and will be a delight for anyone interested in the history of horticulture and botanicals, the evolution of the kitchen garden, methods of cookery and domestic households and interiors in the seventeenth century.

Chapters are arranged room by room describing in wonderful detail the myriad of applications for every aspect of maintaining the home be it large or small. The inclusion of a select Herbal of fifty herbs is a lovely addition.

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A selection of what the Tudor physician, William Bullein, considered the most useful medicinal herbs.

Whilst the book rightly states it is not intended to provide medical advice or remedies for readers, it is interesting to note that there is nothing much new under the sun. The current trend towards natural and herbal solutions that are experiencing something of a renaissance in food supplements and cosmetics include many of the ingredients that were in common use during the period this research concentrates on. Modern gardening methods have also to some extent gone full circle in recognising the benefits of long forgotten plants which are being reintroduced to domestic gardens and allotments as companion planting for organic solutions to enrich soil, ward off predators and encourage wildlife. The artisan faction of the textile industry is returning to natural plant dyes which are now highly regarded and sold at a premium in a move away from using harmful chemicals amidst the debate over climate change. The amount of new publications on herbal remedies for everything from infusing alcohol, making herbal teas and aromatherapy preparations to toiletries and cleaning products are prolific. However, these new manuals all share the basis of practices established long ago as exemplified in this narrative.

The Domestic Herbal is a gem of a book to grace any bookshelf as a source of reference to seventeenth century domestic life as much as it will be at home in every academic library.


The Domestic Herbal: Plants for the Home in the Seventeenth Century (256 pp, hardcover, 60 colour illustrations) is published by the Bodlean Library on 26 June with a cover price of £25 and available on pre-order now.

Another lovely evening online pub meeting last night. We kicked off with a short presentation by Joanna Moncrieff on Charles William Alcock – The Forgotten Father of English Sport. A wonderful story about a remarkable man whom few have even heard of.  Thanks, Jo!

Following from our last post, the topic for yesterday evening’s lockdown online pub meet-up was favourite London historic images. These could be paintings, illustrations, cartoons and even maps. Here I copy-paste from our Chat panel and today’s emails from participants and my own recollection. Apologies for any errors or omissions.

I’ll kick of with my choice which was William Hogarth’s engraving of the South Sea Bubble, 1720, the 300th anniversary of which is this year. The artist was about 23 at the time of the crash and made this engraving just a year later, a very early example of his satirical work. I’ll be writing a whole post on the bubble later.

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One of our members chose another of my absolute Hogarth favourites. the March of the Guards to Finchley (1750), which lives at the Foundling Museum.

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Other choices:

The Lord Mayor’s Show by Logsdail, in the Guildhall Art Gallery
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Madness – Anybody for Tea, Vicar and Topolski
A street in Bermondsey with cottages
The Gipkyn diptych of Old St Paul’s (Society of Antiquaries), below
The Dust Heap at Kings Cross (Wellcome Institute), below

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(thanks, Margaret!)

Anne Ramon chose Bury St Edmund by Sybil Andrews a linocut 1930s Dulwich Picture Gallery
Paul Blake: Work by Ford Madox Brown
Daniella King: Bus Stop by Doreen Fletcher

Diana Swinfield’s Group: “St Pancras Station (Rob Smith), Pisarro’s Lordship Lane Station (Diana), Demolition of Old London Bridge (Jen P) Blackfriars Bridge (Tina), Merrion’s 1638 Panorama (Doug H).

Stephen Coates chipped in with the only known map/illustration of a temporary bridge at Vauxhall from the very early 20C. It’s from the Museum of London.

aerial view of temporary bridge

Marilyn Green: ‘Constable Branch Hill Pond 1828 in the V&A ( and sketch from 1819).
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Diane Burstein nominated The Arrival of the Jarrow Marchers in London, Viewed from an Interior by Thomas Cantrell Dugdale from the Geffrye Museum which is pointedly political, showing a very well-heeled man and woman observing the unemployed, hungry marchers from the comfort of a town house window.
Dugdale, Thomas Cantrell, 1880-1952; The Arrival of the Jarrow Marchers in London, Viewed from an Interior

Tina Baxter nominated a remarkable painting from the Guildhall Art Gallery: Blackfriars Bridge & St Paul’s London by Anthony Lowe b 1957
blackfriars bridge

Probably my favourite of the evening was nominated by Claire Randall: The Royal George at Deptford Showing the Launch of The Cambridge, (1757), by John Cleverley the Elder from the National Maritime Museum. It’s gorgeous and when everything is open again I shall seek it out.
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Another very lively and fascinating session. My thanks to all who attended, spoke, contributed and sent feedback. Apologies if I forgot stuff.

Special salaams to Dave Brown, our Zoom admin, or in this context, Landlord!


Our next online pub meet-up is Wednesday 3 June at 6.30 pm. The break-out discussion topic will be name three historical Londoners you’d invite to dinner (or dine out with). Our introductory speaker will be LH Member Peter Kennedy on Thames foreshore bomb damage during World War 2.

 

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Our online monthly pub meet-up last Wednesday. We started with an illustrated talk about London on VE Day by Rob Smith.

We then invited members to tell us what they’d been reading. Here is most of it. Note that some of these may be out of print. Also, I have taken these from the Live Chat and edited. There may remain spelling errors / typos. Note that our next online pub meet-up is next Weds 20 May.

London Belongs to Me by Norman Collins
Changing Lives by Olive Besagni about the Italian community in Clerkenwell
Sir John Cass and The Cass Foundation by Sean Glynn
Rope & Hangover Square by Patrick Hamilton 
Rivers of London  by Ben Aaronovitch
Death Certificate by Stephen Molyneux
All Quiet on the West End Front by Matthew Sweet
A European Life by Marion Turner (biography of Chaucer)
Shakespeare’s First Reader by Jason Scott Warren
Mudlarking by Lara Maiklem
“WW Jacobs about Watermen on the Thames. ” [I couldn’t work out the actual title – Ed]
Old and New London published by Edward Walford
A Better Life – by Olive Besagni
Dirty Old London by Lee Jackson
London Under by Peter Ackroyd
Botany, Sex and the Empire by Patricia Fara about Joseph Banks and Carl Linnaeus
Blitz the story of 29 Dec 1940 by M J Gaskin
London the Autobiography – 2,000 Years of the Capital’s History by Those Who Saw it Happen by Jon E Lewis (not to be confused with Peter Ackroyd’s similarly titled work)
KitKat Club by Ophelia Field (probably out of print)
Industrial History of the Lower River Lea – a walking Guide by Rob Smith – NEW!
Secrets of the 43 Club by Kate Meyrick

A guest post by London Historians member Martin Thompson. 

Lying slightly behind the Royal Free Hospital in Hampstead lies a remarkable block of flats. Remarkable for two reasons. The first being for the architecture which was ahead of its time and secondly for the people who lived there and those who visited it.

isokon flats

The Lawn Road flats in Hampstead opened in July 1934 and were the product of Molly and Jack Pritchard, who put up the money, and their architect Wells Coates. The three had similar views on the problems of city living and wanted to apply Modernist principles in solving them. This meant that the flats would follow Le Corbusier’s mantra that the home was ‘a machine for living in’. It was the first block ever to be built mainly using reinforced concrete. Intended to be the last word in contemporary modernist living, the block of flats was minimalist with built in furniture and communal facilities such as a laundry. They were aimed at the market of new young professionals of the 1930s. They contained 22 single flats, four double flats, three studio flats, staff quarters, kitchens and a large garage. In 1937 a club, ‘The Isobar’ was added to the complex.

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Walter Gropius

The first ‘Controller of Design’ was the internationally-renowned architect Walter Gropius who was appointed in 1934. With the rise of Hitler and National Socialism in 1933, Gropius, then the Director of the internationally renowned Bauhaus School, believed that there was little future for him or the institution. In this he was proved correct as Hitler closed the Bauhaus shortly after coming to power. Gropius and his second wife, Ise Frank, whom he had married in 1923, secretly fled Germany and arrived in England on 18 October 1934. However, in March 1937, Gropius left for the USA to become professor of Architecture at the Harvard Graduate School of Design. A month before he left, Gropius recommended Marcel Breuer, as his replacement for Controller of Design.

Marcel Breuer, otherwise known as Lajkó, was a Hungarian born designer who became world famous for his furniture designs in the early part of the 20th Century. After Gropius had left the Bauhaus, Breuer followed suit. He initially moved to Switzerland where he concentrated on furniture design. The tubular steel and aluminium pieces which he produced won universal praise but still left him with little or no money. By the time he left in 1935 to join Gropius in the pioneering modernist Lawn Road Isokon Flats in Hampstead, Breuer was one of the best-known designers in Europe. During the two years he spent in Hampstead, Breuer was employed by Jack Pritchard at the Isokon Company, which became one of the earliest proponents of modern design in the United Kingdom. The innovative furniture Breuer designed whilst at Isokon in Hampstead were highly influential pieces of modern design and included chairs, tables and the famous ‘Long Chair’. He not only designed furniture, however, as between the years 1935 and 1937 he worked in practice with the English architect F. R. S. Yorke with whom he designed a number of houses in and around Hampstead and further afield.

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Marcel Breuer in one of his trade mark chairs.

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Agatha Christie

The flats – and particularly the bar – became famous as a centre for intellectual life in North London. Notable residents included Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, the authors Nicholas Monsarrat, Agatha Christie and her husband Max Mallowan as well as Gropius and Breuer. Agatha Christie lived at 22 Isokon, throughout the Second World War, from 1940 until 1946, suffering all the fears and privations of the bombing. She did voluntary war work at the University College Hospital as a hospital dispenser as she had done in the First World War. Sometimes she walked home to Belsize Park when the Tube trains were not running properly, and her evenings were spent writing. She was at the height of her powers and fame as an author, and her war-time years at Lawn Road were extremely productive. Not only did she write several of her well known crime novels but she was also very involved in writing for the stage, which she loved. When her daily life became too stressful she would take refuge in her flat and in her own words, “lie back in that funny chair here which looks so peculiar and is really very comfortable”. An original 1930s Isokon ‘funny chair’ can be found in the Hampstead Museum at Burgh House. She left Lawn Road in 1946 when she was able to reclaim her home in Devon which had been requisitioned by the navy.

Regulars at the Isobar included Henry Moore, who made a series of remarkable sketches of people sheltering from the German bombing in the nearby Belsize Park underground station. Others included the artists Piet Mondrian, Paul Nash, Roland Penrose and his wife the war photographer Lee Miller, Barbara Hepworth and Ben Nicholson, all of whom were at one time resident in Hampstead. The chef at the Isokon building later became the first British celebrity TV Chef – Philip Harben.

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Henry Moore sketch of Londoners sheltering from the Blitz.

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Henry Moore in the Underground, by Lee Miller.

The building fell into disrepair in later years but in 2003 it was sympathetically refurbished. During the restoration the services were completely renewed and a later overcoat of render removed from the exterior The Isokon is now occupied by key workers under a shared ownership scheme whilst the larger flats were sold outright on leases.

As part of the refurbishment, an exhibition space was created in the former garage. Run since 2014 and staffed wholly by volunteers, it tells the story of the building, as well as the social and artistic life of the residents. It is usually open on weekends from March to October from 11:00 to 16:00.

Review: Faith in the City of London by Niki Gorick

Faith in the CityThere are over 50 places of worship in the City of London, serving many faiths. In times gone by there were many more. Dozens of churches have been lost down the years to fire, the Blitz and town planning, St. Paul’s being chief among them. Most have risen from the ashes – resurgam – and many others have disappeared forever. A tiny handful, such as St Olave Hart Street, miraculously swerved disaster. The sad ruins of a couple – St Dunstan-in-the-East, Christ Church Greyfriars –  remind us of what we have lost.

Still, you may think that many is a good many for just a square mile (+/-). But, actually, they have a lot of ground to cover, and not just ecumenically. The City comprises 26 Wards and is also the home to over a hundred livery companies, most of them dating from medieval times. In addition there are dozens of military units attached to the Square Mile in some way. Virtually all of these institutions have a bond with one or more church. Then there is their relationship with City Hall itself. Throw this into the mix of actual ecumenical work and you will soon appreciate how busy and vibrant the City’s religious institutions are and have to be.

This new book by Niki Gorick covers all of this. She has been taking pictures in the City for many years with exhibitions at the Guildhall and elsewhere. This project is the culmination of over 200 individual shoots over several years. In the Preface she explains why the City’s religious institutions are so vibrant, an incongruous situation for many who only see the Square Mile’s ‘reputation as a financially obsessed powerhouse’. She writes, rather, of the ‘hidden and surprisingly vibrant world of worship, stretching out into many different faiths’. She explores in the pages that follow, the ‘multi-layered interaction between faith and commerce within its tight geographical confines’.

It would be easy and obvious to include church images which are purely architectural. There are none. This is because – first, foremost and throughout – this is a book about people, where architectural features – windows, columns, porches whatever –  play a supporting role. As you would expect, the ordained feature most strongly. At the head we have two bishops of London: the outgoing Richard Chartres; and his successor, London’s first woman Bishop, Sarah Mullally whose brilliant and natural smile shines from several of these pages. There are the ‘characters’, some of whom you might know:  Archdeacon Luke Miller, a regular on Twitter; Rev David Parrott of St Lawrence Jewry; Bertrand Olivier, formerly of All Hallows by the Tower; Rose Hudson-Wilkin and many more. Their enthusiasm and dedication for all to see.

Interfaith dialogue - The Rt. Rev. & Rt. Hon. Dame Sarah Mullaly

Bishop Sarah Mullally with Archbishop Angaelos, Coptic Orthodox Church.

And then, of course, their congregations. Some might be ordinary worshippers, others functionaries, musicians, bell ringers and so on. Still others are ordinary members of the public in the streets, bemused perhaps to see congregationalists of St Bride’s rolling eggs down Fleet Street at Easter; or a donkeys being welcomed at St Giles Cripplegate during Holy Week.

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Faith in the City of London is divided into 10 Chapters which address various types of religious roles and activities. Broadly speaking, the early chapters deal with ecumenical matters, mainly pertaining to service and ceremony. There is a lot of emphasis on diversity of worship. Inevitably, most of the ‘action’ relates to the ministry of the predominant, established order: the Church of England. However, the author has given  much space to other Christian denominations – Roman Catholic, Romanian Orthodox, Welsh Presbyterians etc. – along with Jewish worshippers of Bevis Marks; and other non-Christian faiths which lack their own buildings but nonetheless are catered for, in particular Muslims and Sikhs.

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The first fire of Easter at St Barts.

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Muslim Friday prayers at Wax Chandlers’ Hall.

The second half of the book, roughly, looks at the history of faith in the City as well as the very rich topic of music. Quirky and ancient ceremonies such as Beating the Bounds and the Knollys Rose ceremony; the Great Fire and more recently, celebrating the Siege of Malta every August. Of course the City’s churches have a centuries old bell-ringing and choral tradition alongside organ music. In addition they are venues for a plethora of other music – military, classical, jazz, folk, rock, world – all of it (Top Tip: the City is a fabulous place for a free concert, especially at lunch time!).

The end of the book examines other functions of City churches, as venues for anything from corporate lunches to yoga. It also shows pictures of evangelical outreach activity: mixing with the community in businesses, shops, second hand book sales, and so on.

So all in all, a huge swathe of territory pictorially covered.

Faith in the City of London is atmospheric, joyous and optimistic. It is a celebration of a side to the Square Mile that many of us – including even people who work there every day of their lives – don’t always realise or see.


All images by Niki Gorrick. 


Faith in the City of London (160pp) by Niki Gorick is published by Unicorn Publishing with a cover price of £25.

 

 

 

Bloody London

Book Review: Bloody London by David Fathers.
’20 Walks in London, Tracing its Gruesome and Horrific History’

coverLondon’s history is nothing if not turbulent. Over the years, authors and historians in their dozens if not hundreds have latched onto this city’s violent past to produce books which are often sensationalised or speculative or both. Equally, there have been a shedload of guide books, also varying in quality. A sub-genre of this – becoming quite popular in recent times –  are the self-guided walk publications. This new book, by David Fathers, combines all of this in a volume which is of exceptionally high standard in all departments.

The book’s title and indeed his informative introduction, focuses strongly on death, murder and execution. I’ve always been quite interested in execution and even more so on duels. Yet there’s a lot here that’s new to me, for example the mid 18C axeman John Thrift who was particularly unpopular even by the standards of his trade; and on the very same page, the sword duel between Beau Wilson and John Law. All good, bloody stuff.  But actually you’ll find a huge diversity of topics. Riots, raids, disasters. The 1878 Princess Alice disaster is, of course covered. In the immediate aftermath of my previous review, it was pleasing to see a six page treatment of the first Zeppelin bombing of London on 31 May 1915 with the murderous route of LZ38 and every single one of its bombs mapped.

zeppelin page

So you’ll find both the familiar and a pleasing amount of the unfamiliar here, but the point is, all of it comes across as fresh.

The walks vary in distance from just under a kilometre to around 10K. Of course, one isn’t obliged to stay the distance. Each route is laid out by the author in elegant, easy-to-read maps which spread across the pages, skilfully integrated with the text descriptions and illustrations.

Bloody London is written in an interesting and matter-of-fact style, compelling material handled in a non-sensational way: as the reader, you feel in good hands. But for me the most impressive thing about this book is that the author has designed and illustrated it himself, and done it quite beautifully. Very few people indeed can do this. Ben Schott is the only other writer I can think of who does this successfully. The upshot is that the pages here are fit to bursting without seeming cluttered. And there are nice touches; every spread contains a tiny diagram telling you the exact distance of that part of the walk. Little additions which produce a very satisfactory whole.

At 174 x 150 mm the book is slightly larger than what one might call pocket size, but still small enough for easy handling and legibility on  your walks.
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This is definitely a book worth owning, whether you use it on the road or simply to have an enjoyable read.


Bloody London (128pp) by David Fathers is published by Conway in paperback, fully illustrated in full colour, with a cover price of £9.99.